Flammable solid material in gunpowder firearms, which, when ignited by various firing devices, causes the projectile to be fired by the propulsion of gases formed or to be launched by any vehicle.
It has been used as a war material in the East as well as in the West for its flammable properties since the first centuries. In its purest form, the carbon, hydrogen and abundant and flammable mineral, naphtha is capable of attracting fire to itself without full touch. As a result of its mixing with other substances such as oil, sulfur, etc., the neft, which is known as “Greek fire daha, becomes the essence of the liquid form of flammable material used against people, ships and various siege vehicles made of wood. After the introduction of saltpeter into the 1230s, soma gained new values.
Since the 12th century, the Chinese had found the driving force of saltpeter and used it to launch firecrackers. The Iranians and then the Arabs are thought to be influenced by China and India. This composition, usually composed of saltpeter, coal and sulfur, is also known as black pepper.
70-80% potassium nitrate (KNO3), 12-20% wood charcoal and 3-14% sulfur are present in the mixture of gunpowder. Potassium nitrate gives the oxygen needed to burn coal sulfur. Sulfur allows the gunpowder to ignite easily. Carbon dioxide is generated from the combustion of coal and sulfur-oxide gases from the combustion of sulfur. A high pressure is obtained from the remaining gases of potassium, sulfate, potassium carbonate, potassium sulfur. Suddenly, this pressure emerges the projectile forward in firearms.
The invention of gunpowder
In Europe, it is believed that a German monk and philosopher named Berthold Schwartz (1318-1384) first found the gunpowder. Although Schwartz used gunpowder to throw away the cannonballs by pouring the first balls used by the Venetians, some historians claim that British knowledge of gunpowder Roger Bacon (1224-1954) was found in Europe.
In Europe, gunpowder was first used in firearms in the 13th century. In the 14th century, the use of artillery was developed. It is known that gunpowder was first used in the Cressy War (1346) between the British and the French. As a result of advances in chemistry, nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin were obtained and light smoke powder was used. Smokeless gunpowder (1886) and a high-quality explosive substance, nitroglycerine gunpowder, found by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel (1833-1896) were then used.
Types of gunpowder
Gunpowder is divided into varieties according to the substance they are made, their form and the job they see:
Cotton gunpowder: Explosive substance obtained by treating cotton with nitric acid and sulfuric acid. Cotton gunpowder is used in some bullets and electric firing devices to deliver flame to the explosive material, as well as in the production of some high-quality smokeless gunpowder. Cotton gunpowder is a nitrocellulose with plenty of nitrogen.
Piro powder: Flat nitrocellulose powder; is a smokeless propellant powder consisting of a nitrocellulose having less nitrogen than cotton powder.
Kordayte gunpowder: In some states, cotton gunpowder, used as propellant gunpowder, is a double base gunpowder powder made from nitroglycerine and some kind of mineral oil.
Other types of gunpowder: mouthpowder gunpowder, fire gunpowder, firing gunpowder, pebble gunpowder, chocolate gunpowder, granular gunpowder, brown gunpowder, sputter gunpowder, rope gunpowder, is'al gunpowder, capsule gunpowder, sharp gunpowder, sewer gunpowder, pasta gunpowder, sewer gunpowder prismatic) gunpowder, germ gunpowder, destroyed gunpowder, gun gunpowder, leaf gunpowder etc.