Fallow is the cultivation of the soil, leaving it empty for a certain period of time. In regions where dry farming is carried out, water is a deficient factor, and annual rains are not sufficient to remove crops every year. For this reason, a product is taken every two years and it is compulsory to put a “fallow year” between the two cultivation years, especially since the natural precipitation falling in the arid and semi-arid regions is too low to allow production every year, fallow is often applied compulsorily. It is to accumulate some of the precipitation water falling in the soil in the year and increase the amount of water that will be useful to the plant the following year.According to the time and shape, fallow has varieties such as fallow, half fallow, full fallow, fallow and stubble fallow.
Nearly 4 million hectares of land are left annually in arid and semi-arid regions such as Central Anatolia, Passage Regions and Southeastern Anatolia, where annual rainfall is below 400 mm and rains intensely fall in winter and spring, and where common cold-growing cereals are cultivated. . Grain production in these regions is not possible due to lack of precipitation in most of the time, and a year of fallow is inserted, and moisture is accumulated in the soil for a good output until the month after the fallow. Thus, the field is left fallow for 14-15 months from June-July when the grain harvest is made, but grain planting is made again in September-October of the following year.
In Central and Southeastern Anatolian conditions, more yields can be obtained with the application of fallow up to 400 mm of precipitation in soils with 120 cm of soil depth, and the possibility of planting every year starts in regions with annual rainfall of over 400 mm. Since the water conservation is very difficult with evaporation resulting from transpiration and capillary action in soils with a soil depth of less than 90 cm, chickpeas, lentils, safflowers, cumin, and flax, which are not produced in excess of fallow, in this type of fields, or water consumption is not so much. Growing such plants may be more profitable.
NADAS TO INCREASE EFFECTIVENESS…
Soil cultivation should be carried out in a way that aims to keep the water that is limited in fallow year to the maximum extent in the soil and at least to have enough moisture to guarantee germination in the planting bed. Especially soil tillage method and time have a great influence on water conservation in soil. In particular, soil and water conservation can be provided better by making stubble fallow or minimum tillage applications instead of land fallow.
The main purpose in these applications; It is not to work the soil unnecessarily, to tilt the soil by tearing it from the bottom, to do the first tillage as soon as the soil pan arrives in the early spring, to leave the soil surface with mulch, if possible. If the soil does not connect with cream and the weeds do not appear to be harmful, versions such as doubling and trilogy should not be done unless required.
Because the soil is constantly aerated and crumbled in every tillage, water losses increase by evaporation. For dry farming areas where fallow is possible, sowing machines (seeders) are ideal, which, if possible, drop the seed along with the fertilizer to the band, which have pressure wheels between the planter feet, and thus can be used for archaic cultivation. In this way, both the seed strip is pressed well and more rain and snow water is accumulated in the arcs formed.
In fallow period, the water falling to the field with rains should be protected in the best way. For this purpose, tillage and weed control should be done regularly on time and in accordance with the technique. In the fallow year, only 20% of the total precipitation falling on the field is kept in the soil until October (for example, if 500 mm of precipitation has fallen, only 100 mm of it accumulates in the soil during fallow). Nevertheless, retained water often allows for a good outlet.