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The materials obtained from the mixture of solid and liquid feces of barn and poultry and bedding material are called animal manure (farm manure or barn manure). Since it is all organic, it creates a good development environment for microorganisms. These fertilizers, which are generally released as a result of the activities of agricultural enterprises, are important resources that should be evaluated for the fertility of soils.
WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?
Stable fertilizers provide the necessary nutrients for plant growth. It also makes the structure of the soil suitable for agriculture. Stable manure is not only a source of plant nutrients, but more importantly it is a soil conditioner that regulates the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil.
As a result of the application of the manure to the soil, the water holding capacity of the soil increases and the permeability is positively affected. In this way, barn manure prevents water from flowing, evaporating and carrying arable land independently of the soil surface. Keeping soils in the field with barn fertilizers should be considered as a measure against erosion hazard.
Soils where barn fertilizers are applied come to pans more easily and are easier to process. In addition, it loosens the part attachment of fine clay soils, increases the air gaps and gives the soil a suitable structure for plant growth. In sandy soils, it provides soil particles to stick together.
One of the most important characteristics of barn fertilizers is that it is a rich source of microorganisms. Stable manure mixed with soil increases the number and efficiency of microorganisms in the soil.
WHAT ARE THE FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE COMPOSITION OF STABLE FERTILIZERS?
Two main factors are effective in the composition of barn fertilizers.
Breed, age and feeding status of animals,
The structure of the barn and the type of bed material
Plant nutrients contained in animal manure vary according to the type, age and nutritional status of the animal from which they are obtained. In general, animals can only benefit from 45% of the nutrients they eat. More than half of the plant nutrients in the feed pass to the manure with feces. However, the fertilizers of young animals in development are lower in terms of plant materials such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium than those obtained from older animals. Because young animals need and use more nutrients and proteins to improve their bone and muscle structures. According to this;
FERTILIZER CONTENT CHANGES BY ANIMAL GENDER!
In terms of nutrients, poultry manure is the richest and beef manure is the poorest. Horse and sheep fertilizers are among them. The nutrient content of barn fertilizers obtained from sheep and chickens is higher than that of cattle and horsepower.
ANIMAL NUTRITION CONDITIONS FERTILIZER QUALITY!
The amount and quality of feed given to the animals affect the composition of the manure obtained from those animals. For example, manure-fed animals with high nitrogen content, such as legume or grain crops, are rich in nitrogen. While the fertilizer of the animals fed with intensive feeds is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus, the fertilizer of the animals fed with roughage is rich in potassium.
THE STRUCTURE OF THE STEP AND THE MATERIALS OF THE BED INFLUENCE THE FERTILITY!
The structure of the barn and the type of the bed are also important factors in the quality of the fertilizer. The bed material increases the amount of organic and inorganic material in the fertilizer, also facilitates transport and collection, and creates a dry and warm environment for animals. Straw, straw, peat soil, leaves, sawdust, paddy husk and soil can be used as bed material which is cheap and has high water holding capacity. It is important that the soil where the animals are housed is soil or cement in order to maintain the nutrient content of the manure.
WHY THE STABILITY FERTILIZER IS NOT FRESH?
Fresh manure includes some disease agents and pests.
It contains weed seeds and weeds increase in the applied area.
Plants cannot benefit from undifferentiated nutrients.
Decomposition lasts longer.
Disintegration produces toxic compounds harmful to the plant.
During the disintegration of fresh manure, the nitrogen present in the soil is consumed by microorganisms.
MATURING OF STABLE FERTILIZERS
Animal fertilizers, which are very inconvenient to use as fresh, must be properly matured, ie fermented and burned. The most important stage of fertilization is holding. The holding time required for the fertilizer to mature may vary from a few weeks to six months. If phosphorus fertilizer is added to 7-8 kg P2O5 per ton of farm manure at the ripening stage, NH3 loss in the form of gas from farm manure is prevented while at the same time the farm manure is enriched to phosphorus.
The size and height of the fertilizer pile are important for the ripening of fertilizers.