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XIX. Until the turn of the century, the eyes were always in Rome and Greece. Our contemporary civilization was reduced to these two sources alone. This changed with Napoleon's campaign to Egypt. The scholars who went with him to Egypt saw the astonishment and admiration of a much older civilization from these two rich civilizations since the invention and the monument. In 1842 the horizon widened; Botta, the French consul general in Mosul, uncovered the ancient monuments of Mesopotamia. This was followed by the recognition and examination of other civilizations (Sumerians, Babylonians, Egelians, Hittites, nomadic people living in the steppes extending from Ukraine to Mongolia).

Today, Athens and Rome are brilliant in our eyes, but nothing more than a detail of the history of civilization. Many major technical inventions can no longer be attributed to them. We know that. They are not the shadow of the Roman reign or the famous philosophers of Greece, but they are the works of Asian societies, which were sometimes forgotten but established great empires. Above we saw that the plow, the harness, the ship were the inventions of these rings. But how many of us know that butter is the invention of the Iskiller and iron (in 1300 BC) is the invention of the Myths?

The iron mine was previously known; It is the “iron industry olduğ that we owe to the Hittites. B.C. In 2950, ​​an iron ax in Ur; B.C. 2840-BC. Iron weapons were found among the Sumerian remains from 2700 and in the Pyramid of Cheops. However, at that time, iron was considered a valuable item, as it was an extremely rare mine. In the time of Hammurabi (2000 BC), the value of iron in Babylon was eight times that of silver, and four to three times that of gold. What was the reason why this mine was so rare today?

Because iron was more difficult to obtain than copper or bronze. To melt the copper and remove it from the soil, 1.083 degrees heat is sufficient. The tin used in the construction of the bronze melts more easily (at 232 degrees). A heat of 1,535 degrees is required for the melting of iron. Furthermore, since the ore is in the form of oxide, there is a need for a large amount of reducer, ie, a reducing agent, especially carbon, to separate it from the oxygen, which could not be achieved with furnaces used in copper and bronze metallurgy (science examining mines and their treatment). . This, BC. It was impossible to construct with the foot-operated bellows, which we saw in an Egyptian painting of 1700, and to supply the required amount of oxygen to the substance from the ore.

It was the Hittites who made iron a mine that everyone used. There is no doubt that they are injured from blast furnaces. Thus, heavy weapons made of bronze, armor and shields were replaced by iron ones. Archaeologists, II. They found 160 tons of these weapons and vehicles in Sargon's palace.

Iron quickly spread from the Near East to Egypt and the Balkans, where the Dorians lived. B.C. It was the Dorians who introduced this mine to Europeans, which began to be seen in Europe in the 900's. East Asia adopted iron in the same age. In Delhi, BC. IV. There is a large column from 17th century and 17 meters high and weighing 17 tons. Vierendeel: bile It is surprising how people melted and worked the metal Hindus used to manufacture such a giant piece that would intimidate the workshops even today, insan Vierendeel says.

Of course, iron was first used only in military service. Heavy bronze swords were ince incapable karşısında in the face of thin, light and long swords made of iron, while spears, arrows and bows were made more useful. Gem and spur lightened. This was followed by household items and other tools used in daily life. Knife, saw, chain and so on. He started to leave the blacksmith's workshop. Meanwhile, scissors were also invented. Previously, scissors were only used to cut the hair and mustache of warriors. After a while, the jewelery began to be made of iron.

Watching the development of iron is very instructive. This mine, which is the product of the intelligence of a Near Eastern people, gave the Assyrians the opportunity to spread their shedding sovereignty throughout the Near East. II. This empire, where kings such as Sargon and Assurbanipal gained fame, was the heir of ancient civilizations such as Sumerian, Egyptian and Babylonian. In the face of this giant representative of Asia, what would Europe matter? .. Except for only a small illuminated spot created by the Greek world. A dark, quiet and barren world in which the Celts have lived for several centuries, the poor huts of the Celtic villages, of an agricultural people who emigrated from southwest Germany. It was far from Babylon, Knosos' ninova artworks and bathed dwellings. And it was something that Europe would someday overcome, and that the mind could not have dreamed of.

However, BC. In 612, the imposing Assyrian structure collapsed; Nineveh vanished in the fires. Another empire rose from its ruins: the Persian Empire. This state, which has widened its borders,

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