Potato is a mild and cool climate plant. Potatoes require an average temperature of 15-20 ° C during the growing season. However, day length and light intensity are effective on this average temperature. Especially in the early stages of plant development, the temperature of -2 ° C can freeze the plant in a short time. Spring frosts are mostly feared. Temperatures above 21 ° C can also negatively affect the yield. Night temperatures are also critical and the optimum level is 10-14 ° C. For soil to be planted + 8 oC temperature, soil temperature is below + 8 oC is useful to delay planting. If the soil temperature is above 20 ° C, tuber growth is negatively affected and above 29 ° C it is completely weakened. During the development period, short-term cultivars need 1600 oC and long-term varieties need 3000 oC heat total.
Precipitation and humidity:
Potato plants are less drought resistant than most plants. While very little of the water taken from the plant is used for direct extraction, most are used for cooling the plant through evapotranspiration, especially in hot circuits, and for transporting organic compounds and mineral substances in the plant. 300-450 mm of precipitation or equivalent irrigation is required for the growing season. Potato plant also loves air humidity, develops well in areas where air humidity is about 70% or more, it becomes efficient. Potatoes do not like dry and continuous winds. Since dry and continuous winds cause moisture loss, irrigation should be considered in such cases.
The effect of day length on the initiation of potato tuber binding or as a counterpart of the tuber binding delay and the encouragement of the green component is great. For potatoes, a long day of 12 hours or more per day, a short day of 10 hours or less, and a neutral day is considered.
Short day and relatively low temperature conditions encourage lump binding. Since this effect is greater in late positive varieties, such varieties behave as sooner in such conditions.
The speed of photosynthesis increases with light intensity. High plateaus are places where the light intensity is higher than the plains. However, due to the geographical location of our country, light intensity is generally not a problem.
Potato plant root system is weak, deep profile, airy, soft, swollen, well-warmed and fertile soil is plenty of fertile, smooth and high quality tuber product gives. Heavy structured soils prevent root development and rots the tubers. Potato develops better under conditions where the soil reaction is neutral and slightly acid (pH = 5.5 -6.0). Streptomyces scabies (potato scabies), a soil microorganism, is selective for the soil in which it lives. It generally lives in sandy, loamy and basic soils. Acid soils cause a reduction of the agent. If the pH is below 4.8, there are signs of calcium deficiency in the plants. Potato cultivation cannot be carried out in high saline and saline soils.
Since potato is an anchor plant, it has an important place in rotation. In particular, it is one of the best plants that can be used for planting on light soils. The potato plant leaves a clean and ventilated soil for the plant to be planted after it. It is not recommended to plant potatoes on the same field every year. Because many potato diseases can survive in the soil for a long time. Since the intensity of diseases passing through the soil will increase in the fields where potatoes are planted each year in a row, significant decreases occur in potato tuber yields each year. For this reason, potatoes should not be planted in the same field in a row.
Potato; grown in the region with sugar beet, sunflower, cereals and legumes can form a very ideal seizure. Research has shown that after planting potatoes legumes yield is high.
FOOD REQUEST AND FERTILIZATION
Potato plant removes excess plant nutrients from soil during growing. Approximately 1/3-1-2 of the plant nutrients collected from the soil accumulates in the green parts of the plant and the remaining amount is stored in the tuber.
In a Dutch study, when 3 tons of potato tubers were harvested per hectare, the plants were 15 kg. N, 6 kg. P2O5, 35 kg. K2O, 9 kg. CaO and 3 kg. MgO removal was calculated. (Beukema and Van Der Zaag 1979). Similarly, in another study conducted in England, when 3750 kg of potato tubers were harvested per decare, 22.4 kg N, 6.8 kg P2O5 and 33.8 kg K20 were removed from the plants by one decare area. As it can be seen from the examination of these values, in general, 5 kg N, 2 kg P2O5 and 10 kg K20 should be removed from the soil in order to obtain one ton of tuber yield from one decare area.
While making fertilizer recommendations in potato farming; purpose of growing, growing time, soil structure, number of irrigation and targeted data