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World Amazing Modern Agriculture Harvester Combines At Work On Field

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1. History of harvesting machines Kanafojski and Karwowski (1976) gave the historical development of harvesting machines as follows and reported that the first information about harvesting machines in history dates back to the first century. The first Harvester transmitted by Pliny was made for the purpose of collecting the Virgo of wheat and barley. This machine, given in figure 1.1, appeared for the first time in Gaul (Western Europe) for the purpose of collecting Virgo. This machine has two wheels and a rake is connected to the front. Form.1.1. Developed in Western Europe in the first century, the spike picking machine is set to a height that will pluck the spike from the Harrow stems in front of the car. A similar machine 4. it was made by Pollodius at the end of the century. In later ages, however, 17. no machine or clutch was found until the end of the century called a harvester. 17 with the development of industry in the UK, Germany and other Western European countries. at the end of the century and the beginning of the century that followed, attempts were made on harvesting machines. Early entrepreneurs imitated the Gaulish machine or made Rotary mowing regular tools. However, these attempts were not successful, and Mayer came up with the idea of a cutting system that works according to the method of cutting scissors for this purpose. Bell, figure 1.2 de 1

2 that made the machine. This machine earned Bell the title of Father of agricultural machinery. In the first used sickle machine, the Cabinet was used to direct the stems to the machine, while the stems in the cut sickle machine were left in the field with the help of people with a rake (figure 1.3). Since there is a great need for manpower in these machines, subsequent developments have been on harvesting with the least use of manpower. The cutting mechanism and Cabinet are driven by a gear and belt that takes its movement from the wheel. The first finger sickle machine was developed in 1868 (Figure 1.4). The cut stems were collected on the table and left in the field after a certain amount, the thickness of the bundles and the width of the barrel could be adjusted. The Marsch brothers developed the Harvester sickle machine in 1858 (figure 1.5). In this machine, there are more than one worker on the machine, and the cut stems are left in bundles in the field. In later studies, developments shifted to the direction of connecting bundles left in the field with wire or rope. Figure 1.2. Eppleby, an American young farmer, developed the mechanism that automatically connects bundles with rope in 1858. But this mechanism began to be installed and used after 9 years on harvesters for economic reasons. Eppleby's binding mechanism later 2

3 it was not only used in harvesters, but also formed the basis of the binding order of modern balers. Figure 1.3. The first sickle machine (1838) Figure 1.4. The first finger sickle machine (1868) caused a shortage of workers during the harvest season, and also the change of harvest in grains by region depending on seasonal conditions also required the addition of threshing units to Harvesters. The first combined machines also appeared in North America and later in Australia. These machines combined harvesting and threshing. They were big, heavy and maneuverable machines. Its moving parts were driven by a wheel. Horses were needed to pull these types of machines. It was also very difficult to handle horses. 3

4 figure 1.5. The Harvester sickle machine (1858) developed by the Marsch brothers were the first tractors of the 19th century. it appeared in the second half of the century. The tractors were initially driven by steam and later by an internal combustion engine. Tractors replaced horses in harvest threshing machines. Initially, the tractor was only used to tow the machine, and there was another engine on the machine for propulsion. The countries where combined harvest threshing machines originated are America, Australia, Canada and then Argentina, respectively. Russia also manufactured a large number of such machines.During World War II started. For a long time in western European countries, the idea prevailed that combined machines were suitable for large areas, which could only be proposed for certain climatic conditions. I. and II. Between the world wars, Germany also made a shaft-powered combine harvester (Class), which was taken through a shaft from a tractor, without an engine suitable for Central European conditions. This was the first introduction of the combined machine to Western European countries. II. Labor shortages during World War II accelerated the need for the development of combined machines. II. At the end of World War II, combined machines began to be widely used throughout Europe. Today, harvesters have started to be used in harvesting and blending cereals, as well as corn, soy, beans and many other products. 4

5 compressing or packing dry grass and stem for easier and cheaper transportation 19. it was made with a hand-operated machine in the century (figure 1.6). An American named Dederick built the first fixed packing or compression machine in 1870 (figure 1.7). This type of compression machine, which is constantly developed in the manufacture, has been kept in Europe and II. It was used until World War II. Fixed compression machines had to bring dry grass and stalk from far away places or from the field, which was time-consuming and increased labor costs. II. At the end of World War II, machines were invented that Bale muzzle-made grasses. Figure 1.6. 19, used in the packaging of stalk and dry grass. century emerged, and the American manually operated compaction equipment Figure 1.7. Fixed Baler made by American Dederick (1870) 5

6 the first machine used to remove or harvest potatoes is a double-acting (double-surface) plough with a segmented ear invented by the British Howard (figure 1.8). This tool was simple, cheap and stable. But it could damage the potatoes at the moment of removal, and in moist soil, it was difficult to separate the potatoes from the soil. Much work was done to prevent this, and Scottish-born Hanson came up with the idea that the working remover could easily separate the potato from the sacs. Coleman, the famous British designer, developed the idea of Hanson flour and put it into practice, making the Hanson-Coleman potato remover machine in 1856 (figure 1.9). Figure 1.8. Figure 1.9, a double-acting Howard plow with a segmented ear invented by British Howard and used to dismantle potatoes. Hanson-Coleman rotary type potato Removal Machine (1.Rotary Fingers, 2.Hand Crank, 3. Plow handles) 6

7 The Hanson-Coleman potato removal machine has rotating fingers in a star-shaped mechanism in the form of a fork behind a concave end Iron. These rotating fingers throw the ripped potatoes and pouches to one side, allowing them to easily separate from each other. The Rotary fingers take their movement from the wheel through a gear mechanism. With the help of a hand crank, the position of the wheels is changed and the depth of removal of the end iron is adjusted. The shipment and management of the machine is carried out thanks to the plow handles. Daily work efficiency is about 1.25 ha and does the work that the worker does. A disadvantage of this machine is that potatoes are damaged at high environmental speed and thrown at distances such as 10 m. Egbert Kobyliñski has put forward his own design and developed a potato harvester, taking into account the developments in the last 20 years (figure 1.10). This machine was operating on a different principle than the Coleman machine. In this machine, the Earth cut on the back comes to a transmitter with a beveled chain. Figure Kobyliñski's potato Removal Machine (1. Remover foot, 2. Chain forwarder, 3.Sloping groove, 4.Operator's seat, 5. Additional weight, 6. In Chains, the soil passes to the bottom, and the rest of the material passes into a chute, and in this chute, potatoes are left in the field at the end of the chute, while other pieces of soil fall to the ground. The operator weight at the rear and the weight suspended at the rear balance the weight of the front of the machine. In front of the machine, a person on the side goes and directs the machine towards the potato rows. The disadvantage of this machine is that in the congested soil, the sacs do not separate well and the tubers 7

8 is under the ground. In addition, the tubers are damaged and the machine has high resistance. The machines developed by Hanson and Kobyliñski were examples of later designs, and Münster built a potato removal machine with a rotating star-shaped launcher unit that was tilted in the opposite direction of rotation in 1870 (figure 1.11). In this machine, the pouches were better crushed and the potato stalks were also prevented from being attached to the wheel. However, damage to the tubers and the soil could not be prevented. Figure Hampel, the inclined-footed potato removal machine that Münster made in 1870, developed the potato removal machine given in Figure 1.12 in 1896. This machine had a rotary rake behind the remover foot and was doing the work that the star-shaped rotary launcher found in earlier machines did. Figure Hampel's potato removal machine made in 1896 (1. Remover foot, 2. Rotary rake) 8

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