How do I know it's harvest time?
The main challenge in the picking process is the correct determination of the maturation time of the ears. Depends on a few factors:
vegetation duration of a given variety,
climatic features of the region,
seasonal weather conditions.
It's also important how the harvest is planned to be used: to pick seeds for October, to cook popcorn from corn or to use the cobs fresh. In the first two cases, cobs are collected during the biological maturation stage and are only suitable for eating milk corn, boiled and raw.
Determine the beginning of milky maturity with the following characteristics:
The grains are light yellow in colour, sometimes creamy white in colour, very watery and soft.
the leaves that surround the cob are still green and it is very difficult to separate them,
the panicle at the tip of the ears only begins to darken, becoming light brown at the tips,
There is white milk in the weevil, which is sprayed with pressure.
Biological maturity occurs at the end of the growing season and is defined by the following external markings:
The color of the grains is honey yellow, sometimes orange, and the shells harden.
when pressed, the juice is no longer conspicuous and felt in the starch that replaced it,
the outer leaves on the cob dry out and make it look like parchment,
the brush crowning the fruit becomes densely Brown and dry.
How to collect the cob for fresh consumption
If the time of collection is correctly determined, the cobs collected during the Milky maturation stage are distinguished by the sweet taste and taste of the grains. They're easy to collect.
The Rams ' readiness can be determined by their position: they must deviate from their stems and take a nearly horizontal position.
Don't collect all the corn at once. It begins to pick up the cob, which is located closer to the top of the plant. They usually mature faster.
If the whisk is dry enough, check before collecting it. If it has a reddish hue and is moist to the touch, this means that the corn has not yet reached its milky maturation stage.
Feel the cob to make sure it's completely full of grains. If the tip still has a pointed shape-you have to wait until it becomes dull and rounded when cleaning.
If you are unsure of the maturity of the cob, examine the leaves by spreading the grains. If they are completely white and the juice secreted is clear, the corn is not yet ready to eat. Very brightly coloured grains and thick milky white water suggest you're missing the peak of milky maturity.
Remember, skipping harvest time is not as early as picking fruit. It loses most of the juice and sugars that will turn into ripe cornstarch.
Squeeze tightly with your hand to separate the cob from the body and rotate it around its axis. Ripe corn should be broken without problems and without using additional cutting tools.
The conversion of sugar to starch occurs very quickly, so it is recommended that the collected cob be used on the first day after collection, as long as they have an excellent taste.
Low temperatures may be being used to slow sugar loss. That's why it's better to store corn in the fridge in the morning covered with a cool, damp cloth. So he'll keep it sweet all week.
How to collect cobs on popcorn
Popcorn is planted in special blast varieties for corn. But the right class is completely inadequate. It is also necessary to prepare the cultivated cob correctly, guided by various rules.
Corn for popcorn is harvested at the biological maturity stage, waiting for the leaves to turn yellow and leave to dry, and the panicles take on a dense brown tone.
Don't let the crop fall under the early frost fields. Exposure to low temperatures will make the cob suitable for consumption.
Without using the cutting tools, collect the ripe corn, just rip it off the dried stem.
To produce popcorn, it wilts so that the grain in the corn stays partially wet. The ideal humidity should be between 12 and 14%.
Rams are released from the leaves and then hung or lined on a single sheet in a well-ventilated hot room for 1-1 months.
Determining whether the corn is ready, if it periodically separates the small portions and heats them in the pan. If the grains have started to open completely, they are ready, and the crop can be stored in a cool place without access to sunlight.
How to collect cobs for cereal
If you plan to grow corn from your own seeds, you should expect biological maturity to pick up.
It occurs when the stems and leaves are completely dry. During this period, cobs are easily severed from the root.
The collected corn is released from the outer leaves and sent to a cool and dry chamber for 1-2 months for final ripening.
Check periodically how dry the grains are. To do this, place a few samples in a tightly closed plastic container in the fridge. If condensation appeared in it after a few days, the drying process was not over and there was moisture in the grains.
Separate the dried grains from the cob and place in airtight plastic or glass containers that you store in a cool place with no sunlight.
Properly dried cereals under proper storage conditions will remain suitable for planting for 5 or 10 years.
The main purpose of this type of grain harvest is to minimize the possibility of crop loss in such a way as to cause various damages to the crop.
To collect the grain at maximum dry weight, you need to grow special hybrid varieties that are resistant to staying.. It is also important to use specialized equipment specifically designed for these purposes.
If the dry matter level on the corn cob is not below 60%, the corn can be harvested, and the dry mass level on the threshing board must reach 70% and higher. To check whether the plants have reached this level, it is enough to estimate the black layer that should appear where the grain is attached to the stem. When there is high levels of moisture in the grains the product is not required to collect, because during this time the percentage of various impurities increases, there may be many crushed nuclei, embryos may be damaged.
All this leads to a significant reduction in the commodity qualities of corn, and the material itself cannot be used as seed.
The harvesting process of such a crop usually takes 2 weeks. For good yields, hybrid corn is often planted, which reaches maturity at different times. If early ripening hybrids are planted, early harvesting is possible where the dry weight level is quite high.
It is not possible to leave corn in the field until the last autumn days, because the seeds will freeze due to Frost effect. Rains also have a bad effect on corn, as fungal diseases develop and spread faster due to high humidity, leading to a strong decline in the food value of the crop.
As for the agrotechnical requirements for such a corn, everything is simple:
Cut the need for plants at 15 cm level from the ground,
More than 6% of damaged grains are allowed in case of harvesting grain harvested in the cob,
If special combinations are used to collect corn, the percentage of damaged grains must not exceed 1.5% ,
Equipment must collect at least 96% of the total crop,
During harvest, at least 95% of all cobs must be peeled.
As for equipment, corn grain harvesting is quite convenient. Kherson-200 and 7 combine Kop-1 and KSPU-6. Along with harvesting mechanisms, special cornheads are also used, which significantly improve the quality of the harvesting process and reduce crop losses.
From the time the corn is collected for silage it depends directly on the degree of nutritional value, the chemical, physical and qualitative composition of the product. Silage harvested when corn wax enters its maturity period or at the very end of the Milky wax period is considered to be the best quality and best nutrient. At this time, the grains are very wet (64-70%), they have a lot of sugar, and the acid level is at its best.
If the harvest is removed too early, silage from it will be of very low quality due to the lack of necessary nutrient compounds in it. For example, if you collect corn for silage at the start of the milk-wax period, the product will have a lot of liquid, which will be the cause of faster oxidation, as it will lose 5% of its dry weight.
If the silo is collected correctly, i.e. during the wax maturation stage of the corn grains, then this will give 20% more energy to the animals that will be given the feed. Therefore, cattle will not need more concentrated feed. This principle applies even in dairy feeds, which require a large amount of concentrate to produce milk.
Best of all, good corn silage acts on high-yielding cows, as this crop largely satisfies energy animals. If the animal is satisfied, then this burenka will give you enough milk. Also, even the best corn silage costs less than concentrating.
A number of agrotechnical conditions for silage corn:
Plants must be cut at 20 cm level from the ground surface, but the amount of crop obtained will be less,
Each one must be crushed by crushing,
Individual parts of the plant should not be longer than 6 cm,
Dry weight should be kept at 30%.
Machines harvesting maize for silage should be made according to type KCC-2.6. A special fixture must be installed in the main combined PNP-2.4. A collection must be fitted to this device for Rollers and crushing.
The right harvest is a guarantee of getting a really good quality product that will benefit everyone.