Wheat quality refers to the degree of compliance with the purpose of the sector in which it will be evaluated. It is necessary to meet the needs of the sectors and consumers related to the development and production of wheat varieties in sufficient quantity and quality. In addition to the yield and quality of wheat, producers also have to guarantee the past and future of wheat, which is the main food ingredient, against the growing information pollution around the world. Bad advertising linked to unfounded claims should be prevented.
Quality wheat, in addition to biological quality, means quality grain, quality flour and quality end product. In cultivation, wheat species and varieties should satisfy users in terms of efficiency, durability, processing and end product quality. For new wheat varieties, the gene center of our country has very important infrastructure opportunities.
Processing quality, milling and final product processing value is understood. Millers demand the highest amount and quality grinding products with the lowest energy consumption from wheat paçal prepared for the purpose.
In terms of final product quality, bread wheat, semi-hard, white hexaploid wheat varieties with high protein quantity and quality defined as strong; in the durum status group, hard-glassy structure, semolina yield high, yellow pigment rich, lipoxygenase activity low and Amber tetraploid varieties are preferred. Special demands of the starch, dextrin and glucose industry from hexaploid varieties are available. Therefore, the need for diversified end products with new processes and technologies must be eliminated.
For these reasons, new efficient, high-quality, durable and economical varieties should be developed and transferred to the user and Consumer, taking into account national and international trends.
For this purpose, mobilizing all opportunities, including classical breeding studies on the wheat genome and transgenic interventions under controlled conditions, R & D studies should be accelerated. The world's growing environmental and population problems make this mandatory.
Wheat as the main food item is the most widely produced grain variety after corn and rice. World production is over 700 million tons, and our country is in the top 10 countries of the ranking with an average of 20 million tons. 20% of the world's population, 50% of our country, provides energy needs from wheat and its products. Therefore, my country has a special affinity with wheat. Less agricultural demands of wheat compared to other foodstuffs, ease of preservation and processing technologies; the ability to give the only blistering bread in human nutrition; the cheapest and most suitable energy is partially a source of protein of full biological value; it has an important place in grain varieties with its presence in a neutral aromatic profile (Elgün and Ertugay 1995, Elgün, 2010)). In addition to being a gene source and having a say in production, our country is one of the important countries with grain-based nutrition. Approximately 2/3 of the total October area in our country, and half of the grain cultivated areas are divided into wheat (Elgun, 1977; Caglayan, 1996). Whole wheat products have nutritional properties that are quite suitable for human nature and metabolism and are among the indispensable of humanity and our country.
In today's conditions, wheat-based sectors work intensively to meet humanity's food needs. However, speculative, unsubstantiated and negative news, which has focused on wheat in recent years, has placed the burden of responsibility on the relevant sectors and the academic community for delivering accurate information to our colleagues (Johns, 2012; Brouns et al., 2013).
The above-mentioned advantages of wheat, despite everything, in parallel with the prevalence of production, use and consumption in the International and National areas; breeding, production and variety of grain products also accelerate and spread the work being done in terms of. Wheat, in addition to being a food item, has the function of being an important raw material for feed and other industrial uses, and their share of interest is also increasing every day. This sectoral diversity, especially in the evaluation of wheat species, requires increasing the amount of production on the one hand and the quality and diversity on the other hand (Elgun, 2010).
QUALITY IN WHEAT
Quality is the degree of fitness for purpose. Wheat Quality is called the demands and demands of the segment using. From a sectoral point of view, it is possible to summarize the understanding of quality as follows (Elgun, 2010);
* High quality wheat for the grower; efficient, resistant to environmental conditions and diseases, suitable for purpose and low production cost wheat.
* Wheat Quality is clean, robust, dish-free, disease-free and high in Sunday demand for the trader.
* In addition, the Miller demands the height of the grinding quality.
Cutting using wheat, that is, storage elements, Sunday actors, finished food producer, grain technologists, nutritionists and consumer, determine and demand quality criteria for the sector (Williams et al, 1986). The next actor in the lineup is the client of the previous one. They must meet these demands and meet customer satisfaction.
These quantitative and qualitative limitations for wheat on a sectoral basis guide growers, seed suppliers and breeders in line with these demands. Therefore, these segments mentioned in wheat supply need to work in a good communication environment, in cooperation, multidisciplinary and coordinated. As for coordination, the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and animal husbandry should assume important duties as the official authority.
The above points to three important rings in the supply chain of wheat. If we open them a little (Elgün, 2010);
a. In the growing ring, it is responsible for providing more efficient, durable, environmental, healthy and high-quality varieties to the processing ring in accordance with the demands by using biological, chemical and physical natural technologies required by Agricultural Technology (Unal, 1992, Bard, 2002). At this stage, in terms of diversity and profitability, it must take into account the industry branches that deal with other feed and starch and derivatives, especially food, according to availability. In order to achieve quality, premium application in quality pricing is important in terms of directing the grower from the right angle.
b. The food needs of the food industry in the handler position and orientation in accordance with the consumer; the grower sector in the form of them demand transfer, on the other hand, new products and technologies to the needs of the consumer, has to the proper way to achieve sanitation (Elgün and Ertugay, 1995). The Food Processing segment is the interface between the grower and the consumer with these characteristics. Food industries have to direct and train their supplier and market. It is responsible for selecting and applying the best, beautiful and true in the use of Technology, Laboratory facilities and staff employment.
c. In the consumption ring, the supply of foodstuffs to the consumer and consumer satisfaction in all respects are essential. The fact that the consumer is the best auditor should not be forgotten. Consumer rights should be protected, the official authority, the manufacturer, at least the marketer should be warned.
In human nutrition, three important steps have been passed to this day. These are adequate, balanced and Functional Nutrition stages that have occupied the agenda in recent years (Elgun, 2010).
a. Adequate nutrition is the most important determinant of the war on hunger. 2 of organizations such as FAO, WHO and UNESCO. Adequate nutrition activities constituted the most important subject of activity after World War II (anon, 2003). 800 million people are still hungry, 25 thousand people are starving every day. While waste food is at a level that will feed the starving parts of our world, the fact that the war on hunger is still ongoing shows that the feelings of social responsibility of the educated and developed segments of humanity that we know cannot reach a sufficient level. At this point, while it is noted that the number of hungry people has fallen slightly in recent years, it is not questioned whether the reason is due to saturated people or human slaughter in Asia, Africa and the Middle East (2016c).
b. A balanced diet aims to get sufficient amounts of basic nutrients according to human growth, development and activities with foodstuffs. This constitutes the field of work of developing countries. As a process, it covers after 1980. It aims at balanced consumption of food products that can be reached in a sufficient level by selecting them from an energizing, constructive and vital point of view. A one-way or weighted diet is based on the belief that it causes metabolic disorders and an increase in chronic diseases.
c. Functional Nutrition forms the still-developing, healthier eating Ring of post-1990. This ring has been launched in Japan, the United States and Europe respectively, and is rapidly spreading throughout the world, especially in developed and developing countries. This school of nutrition is a balanced nutrition model developed taking into account the active ingredients of foodstuffs, strengthening the immune system and facilitating metabolism. In this model, natural, organic and special effective functional products are released (Zelinski et al.1999). While the world's population growth increases the need for food, eating habits also encourage diversity, ensuring a balance of supply and demand. Therefore, all disciplines in the soil-to-fork food supply chain must also deal with the eating habits and trends of society and meet the needs. In this regard, important tasks fall on each ring of the chain.
In industrial production, halal and kosher certified products (religious foods) and treatment products used under the name of auxiliary or complementary medicine are also seen as the beginning of a new social responsibility ring.