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Tillage Systems (Author: Dr. Sami Süzer)
1.IMPORTANCE OF SOIL:
Earth, which is vital for all living things on earth, is caused by the constant erosion of the rock layer (lithosphere) that forms the crust of the Earth's sphere as a result of climatic and geological events. In the soil formed in this way, there are sand, clay, tin, lime, plant and living residues of different sizes as products of decomposition and Fusion.
In order to be successful in field agriculture, it is first necessary to prepare a good seed bed suitable for planting, in the pan. Good seed bed preparation is also possible by using agricultural tools and machines suitable for the soil structure in time, with a conscious tillage suitable for its technique.
Tillage can be defined as loosening, crumbling and mixing with any means to plant seeds, to make the soil suitable for plants to grow, and to protect this condition.
Tillage methods vary according to soil type, tillage time, October vigil, genus of planted plant, climatic conditions and level of mechanization at hand.
Aims of tillage:
a) preparing the seed bed,
b) do weed control,
c) plant residues, stubble and barn on the soil surface
burying his dung,
d) to control water and wind erosion.
3. TILLAGE TOOLS:
Different tools and machines have been developed to process agricultural soils for the necessary purposes. It is possible to classify tillage tools according to the priority of use, the way they work and their effects on the soil.
3.1. Classification Of Soil Tillage Tools In Order Of Use:
First-class tillage tools: plows, drawings, bottom boilers,
Second-class tillage tools: cultuvators, rakes, Earth Mills, rollers,
Tool combinations: such as Rake-cultuvator, rake-roller, cultuvator-toothed rake, spring rake-Rotary rake.
4. TILLAGE SYSTEMS:
For purposes such as burying plant residues left over from the previous crop in the field under the soil or remaining as preservatives on the surface of the soil, tillage methods are divided into traditional and protective.
4.1. Traditional Tillage:
The system in which 85% of the product residues are buried in tillage and less than 15% of the product residues remain on the soil surface is called traditional tillage. In this type of tillage, there is a tipping of the soil with an eared plough from first-class tillage tools and intensive tillage.
4.2. Protective Tillage:
If any tillage and October system leaves 30% or more plant residues on the soil surface after planting, it is called protective tillage. This system was developed to control the soil supply.
It covers Grove(protected) tillage, reduced tillage, non-tillage October, mulch-tillage, Ridge-tillage and zone-tillage tillage methods.
This method, also defined as reduced or limited tillage, does not include some version operations performed in the traditional tillage method, as the name suggests. Versions that do not include more socled ploughs are considered reduced tillage.
4.4. Tillage-free agriculture or direct October:
October of October of the land without processing, directly to the field with a sowing machine is called the agricultural system without processing of the soil.
For sustainable, economical plant cultivation in agricultural areas in our country, experts need to implement the most accurate cultivation techniques put forward by research in the period from soil preparation to harvest. In order for the soil operations to be applied in field agriculture to be successful, optimum seed bed preparation is needed, which accumulates moisture in the soil profile. Appropriate seed bed preparation is possible by taking into account the climate of the region, soil type, land slope, October vigil, agricultural tools at hand and the technical information given above.
Agriculture, soil those who are engaged in the slope of the land they own, soil type, and climate can not easily change, but if there is a fault in the tillage habits can change it. If anyone engaged in agriculture, especially in batter, hillside lands, releases and cultivation perpendicular to the slope, heavy rains that fall will be prevented from entering the flow, water will be allowed to seep into the soil more easily, and significant erosion will be prevented.
October October planning, direct planting, reduced tillage techniques will be applied in agricultural areas that are very sensitive to erosion in such a way that vegetation (wheat, barley, vetch or stubble) during the heavy rainfall season will make sustainable agriculture possible in agricultural lands throughout our country.