It is the cultivation of the field soil and leaving it empty for a certain period of time. In areas where dry farming is carried out, water is a deficient factor and generally annual rainfall is not sufficient to remove crops from the soil every year. For this reason, crops are taken every two years, and it is compulsory to put a "fallow year" between two October years. Fallow is often compulsory, especially since the natural rainfall in arid and semi-arid regions is so low that it does not allow annual production. There are different types of fallow, such as fall fallow, half fallow, full fallow, land fallow, and stubble fallow depending on the time and shape of the fallow.
An area of nearly 4 million hectares is left fallow every year in arid and semi-arid regions such as Central Anatolia, Passage Regions and Southeastern Anatolia, where annual precipitation is below 400 mm and where precipitation falls intensively in winter and spring months, and where common cultivation of cool-climate cereals is made. . In these regions, grain production is often not possible due to lack of rainfall, one year fallow is placed in between and moisture is tried to be accumulated in the soil for a good exit until the October of the following year. Thus, the field is left fallow for 14-15 months starting from June-July when the grain harvest is made, but the grain is planted again in September and October of the following year.
In the conditions of Central and Southeastern Anatolia, more yield can be obtained with fallow application up to 400 mm of rain in soils with a soil depth of 120 cm, and the opportunity to sow every year begins in regions with annual rainfall over 400 mm. Since it is very difficult to conserve water with evaporation resulting from transpiration and capillary action in soils with a soil depth of less than 90 cm, it is possible to produce grains every year instead of fallow or to produce chickpeas, lentils, safflower, cumin, oil flax in such areas. It may be more profitable to grow such crops.
TO INCREASE NADAS EFFECTIVENESS ...
Tillage should be carried out in order to keep the water limited in fallow year to the maximum extent in the soil and at least to have enough moisture in the planting bed to guarantee germination. Especially tillage method and time have a great effect on water conservation in the soil. In particular, soil and water conservation can be achieved better by making stubble fallow or minimum soil cultivation practices instead of land fallow.
The main purpose of these applications; It is not to cultivate the soil unnecessarily, to tear the soil from the bottom rather than topple it, to do the first tillage in early spring as soon as the soil pan comes, and to leave the soil surface with mulch (such as stubble residue) if possible. Unless it is necessary, versions such as duplication and trinity should not be made unless the earthenware is tied and weeds are not damaged.
Because, in every tillage, the soil is constantly aired and crumbled, so water losses increase through evaporation. For fallow dry farming areas, if possible, seed drills that drop the seed to the belt with fertilizer, with pressure wheels between the sowing legs and that can make arc-like planting are ideal. In this way, both the top of the seed sowing strip is pressed well, and more rain and snow water is collected in the arcs that occur.
During the fallow period, the water that falls on the field with rainfall should be protected in the best way. For this purpose, soil tillage and weed control should be done regularly, on time and in accordance with the technique. In fallow year, only 20% of the total rainfall on the field is kept in the soil until planting (for example, if 500 mm of precipitation has fallen, only 100 mm of this accumulates in the soil during fallow). However, retained water often allows a good outlet.