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Physical Change: Temperature and radiation cause the crystals in the rock to vibrate and this molecular movement causes micro cracks. At night, these cracks develop in the rocks that cool down and shrink, and the salts dissolved with the effect of gas and water movements move away from the rock. Moisture sticks to the rock and dissolves the crystals. Lichen acids, on the other hand, damage the rock biologically and these cracks divide after thousands of years and soil is formed with these erosion.


Soil fauna is formed by the decomposition of organic materials and their combination with molecules. These creatures form a gummy product, and this gummy soil cluster takes place as a result of oxygen exchange and bio-chemical changes. Trees are developing a woody structure to survive. This structure called lignin is a very tight tissue. Other herbs develop a texture that can be easily decomposed by microorganisms such as cellulite.


It creates the decomposed cellulite humus. It is very difficult for lignin to be decomposed by microorganisms and become humus. Moss is the main substance that decomposes the tree. The moss covering the trunk allows the tissues of the tree to blend into the soil. Acids increase the solution event in a system. Where rainfall and parent material is suitable, there is rapid weathering. Decomposition of the soil under water is very slow. Because oxygen is not free, oxidation is slow and organic matter is high because it develops slowly.


There are deciduous forests and brown forest soil in areas with high rainfall. This soil decomposes more quickly and is very rich in organic matter. There are coniferous trees and Podzol soils in areas with moderate precipitation. It is more difficult to decompose and accumulate in the system.


The soil of the regions with tropical rainfall is laterite and decomposition is very fast thanks to organic materials. Under the steppe meadows, there are chernoziom soils and in these soils with high humus, when the early winter comes to rest, the reaction stops and organic matter remains. So it is rich in humus.


There are 5 stages in soil formation: Topography-Climate-Vegetation-Biological formation-Time. Climate-directed water accelerates many reactions. If we make a rough calculation, it takes 150-350 years for 1 cm soil. At least 60 cm of soil is required for agriculture. Under the most favorable conditions, agricultural soil is formed in 20,000 years. During these 5 stages in soil formation, the rocks undergo changes, their fragmentation, and life begins when the rootless plants (individualophyte) accelerate the formation of organic matter by living or dying during their transportation.


While the minerals that make up the soil are connected to each other, it creates a system of voids. 25% of the soil is space. These spaces are called Por. These pores control the species living in the soil and their size.


The soil solution is a useful water solution that carries nutrients. After the water enters the soil, it becomes a soil solution and there are 4 types of water levels.


-0.3 atm Gravitational water: It is a useful water that cannot resist gravity and leaves the soil immediately.


-15 atm Capillary Water: It is useful water that is vital for organisms kept in the system of cavities of the soil.


-150 atm Osmotic water: It is less useful and useless, surrounding clay and humus particles.


-150 atm Hygroscopic water: Molecular level. More than 150 atm pressure must be applied to separate this water. This is more than Venus. Although plants are in a wetland, they cannot absorb water with this pressure and dry up.


Earth Air: There is 20% oxygen and 0.25% carbon dioxide in the soil. 1/3 of the carbon dioxide in the soil is formed by plant roots and 2/3 by microorganisms. With the increase of oxygen and water, carbon dioxide increases, microorganisms decrease and thus oxygen-free environments are formed, such as swamps. In marshes, there is methane instead of carbon dioxide, and sulfuric acid instead of sulphate. Oxygen-free conditions are not beneficial for plants and microorganisms.


Microorganisms: Bacteria, actinomycide, fungus, hairy root, main root ..


Inorganic components: Sand, Silt, Clay ..


Events Driving Microbial Activity


Physical: Temperature- Osmotic pressure- Surface tension- Viscosity- Radiation- Absorption


Chemical: Water activity- PH- Organic Matter- Soil Air- Substances that direct growth- Redox potential.


Soil Ecosystem: The element formed by the organisms in different elements and the system carrying them is called ecosystem. Elements of the ecosystem: Living (Biotic): Producers- Consumers- Decomposers.


Inanimate (Abiotic): Inorganic substance- Organic substance. The task of ecosystems is to control the population.


If the species show integrity in the ecosystem, the population does not change. The ecosystem provides the cycle of matter and provides the energy flow. Humans are the least connected creatures to the ecosystem. Ecosystem strength depends on species diversity. A healthy ecosystem survives thanks to species diversity. a monotonous ecosystem can die with a single pest like a wheat field.


Microorganisms decompose useless materials and make them useful. Lignini

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